The Hidden Fat Reduction Hormones

Control Them and Get Ripped Easier
When you consider hormones, especially in the fitness and bodybuilding world, you are likely thinking about things such as testosterone, cortisol, insulin, and growth hormone. You’re probably not thinking about GLP and GIP.

GLP and GIP are gut hormones. And they are able to make or break your ability to get shredded. Funny thing is, most people have never heard of them, and also the experts did not fully understand their impact before recently.

The Unexpected Revelations of Gastric Bypass
Gastric bypass surgery is becoming the treatment of choice for the morbidly obese. It has been viewed as “proof” that the calorie model of metabolism is right: calories in, calories out.

After the surgery was initially created, the idea was to decrease the volume of food that could be eaten. The weight loss was thought to be due entirely to how patients ate and/or consumed less. This decreased calorie intake was considered to be the sole reason behind the weight reduction.

If you physically decrease the size of the gut, then people can’t consume as much and can get rid of weight. This was the theory, and calorie loss is definitely playing a role. But is this the whole story?

A new understanding is emerging. There’s an unintended, and just recently known, consequence of those gastric bypass surgeries: diminished hunger and (to a lesser extent) fewer cravings. How is it? The operation doesn’t take place in the mind, that’s the area controlling these senses.

Even more interesting, a large proportion of those coming out of surgery were diabetic or insulin resistant and had complete resolution of the affliction. Imagine, before going into surgery you’re plagued with continuous appetite, persistent cravings, and even diabetes. After regaining, you locate your appetite and cravings are eliminated along with the diabetes is totally cured.

What Is Happening?
The positive consequences this surgery has on metabolism and weight reduction are not simply a matter of calories, but instead an inadvertent manipulation of their enteroendocrine properties of the digestive lining. “Enteroendocrine” signifies the hormonal activity of the digestive tract.

The digestive system isn’t simply somewhere to digest and absorb food; it also secretes hormones.

To be able to assimilate food and regulate the metabolism, the body requires a way to communicate with the pancreas, brain, and other organs and cells concerning the type of food coming from. Could it be a huge bowl of Fruity Pebbles requiring considerable amounts of insulin? Is it a enormous steak that’s going to have to take a seat in the gut awhile to be pumped?

Lining our intestinal tracts have been “balancing cells” that sample the foods being pumped. These cells provide advice to the body concerning the quantity and composition of the meals, and deliver signals through hormones/peptides to the mind, pancreas, fat cells, etc..

All these “gut hormones” are now thought to be the major mechanism by which these surgeries might be functioning.


Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP) can be the two most important hormones. These hormones are called incretins.

They act to close down appetite from the mind and stimulate the release of insulin whenever they sense high levels of glucose. They are why the quantity of glucose injected directly into a vein doesn’t produce near as good an insulin reaction compared to that same quantity of glucose swallowed.

GIP is discharged from K sensing cells that line the digestive tract in the upper small intestine where food leaves the gut (the duodenum). GLP is discharged from L sensing cells that exist in the duodenum also, but have greater concentrations lower in the gut.

In gastric bypass, GIP levels are decreased while GLP amounts are raised. This is because the segments of the gut mainly containing GIP are eliminated from contact with meals while the GLP containing segments mostly remain.

GIP and GLP have some rather different effects on metabolism. They suppress appetite and they discharge insulin (but only when glucose is about). The obese and diabetic have less GLP activity, and also the GIP impact from the pancreas is suppressed.

GLP has several activities that make it highly beneficial for the obese compared to GIP. GLP reduces glucagon, a hormone that’s out of control in diabetes and induces glucose to continuously be released in the liver. GLP also helps the body create new, more functional pancreatic cells, restoring the appropriate insulin system.

GLP decreases muscle breakdown. It slows the gut from discharging its food content allowing other desire hormones (such as ghrelin) to remain suppressed for more.

All of this leads to more GLP, less GIP, lower glucagon (which normalizes blood sugar), restored insulin sensitivity and reactivity, suppressed appetite, decreased cravings, and enhanced fat burning. These modifications positively affect the number of calories that will be consumed.

Notice: We’re uncertain how long this effect lasts because some patients may recover weight over many years, but rarely return to the same amount of obesity.

So What Does This Mean?
This tells us is that weight reduction isn’t an easy matter of calorie mathematics, but instead a intricate discussion of hormonal biochemistry.

Many people don’t have to go through expensive and risky surgery to have the very same results and benefits. GLP and GIP amounts could be manipulated with meals. Fiber (especially viscous fiber), protein, and bitter foods, probiotics, as well as other factors are also able to manipulate these gastrointestinal distress cells, providing hunger reducing consequences, helping manage cravings, and restoring insulin sensitivity.

How to Use This New Science for Fat reduction

  • Utilization GIP and GLP to your benefit by ingesting foods that excite their appetite suppressing effects, but not insulin generating consequences. This implies protein, fat, and fiber with no starch or sugar. Fat, sugar, and fiber may have an impact on GIP and GLP, and also provided there’s not a big dose of starch or sugar with these meals, you’ll become full more quickly and remain full for more.
  • Never combine fat and starch/sugar. This combination will greatly increase GIP and lead to a potential bigger quantity of insulin vulnerability with time.
  • Pick viscous fibers. Slippery-type fibers coat the digestive tract and then trick it into thinking there’s more food than there really is. Using a fiber-based drink for a bite is a wonderful way to get this done. The best fibers for this are oat bran, acacia, and glucomannan. But be cautious, if the fiber comes together with sugar/starch you may find the exact opposite effect. This is using fiber for appetite control, NOT elimination. Keep away from over-the-counter brands designed for elimination and rich with sweeteners.
  • Know that the correct carbs to consume. High fiber carbohydrates like non-starchy veggies and less-sweet fruits have a higher fiber to starch/sugar ratio. These are your best bet.
    Branched chain amino acids, specifically leucine, might have a special impact on GLP. A BCAA supplement utilized as a bite, not just for exercise recovery and improvement, could be wise.

References and More Info
Shalev A1, Holst JJ, Keller U. consequences of glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36 amide) on whole-body protein metabolism in healthy man. Eur J Clin Invest. 1997 Jan;27(1):10-6.
Vendrell J1, et al.. Study of the possible association of adrenal tissue GLP-1 receptor with obesity and insulin resistance. Endocrinology. 2011 Nov;152(11):4072-9. Doi: 10.1210/en.2011-1070. Epub 2011 Aug 23.
Chen Q1, Reimer RA. Dairy protein and leucine change GLP-1 discharge and mRNA of genes involved in intestinal lipid metabolism in vitro. Nutrition. 2009 Mar;25(3):340-9. Doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2008.08.012. Epub 2008 Nov 26.
Bueter M1, le Roux CW. Gastrointestinal hormones, energy equilibrium and bariatric surgery. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Sep;35 Suppl 3:S35-9. Doi: 10.1038/ijo.2011.146.
Tadross JA1, le Roux CW. The mechanics of weight loss after bariatric surgery. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Apr;33 Suppl 1:S28-32. Doi: 10.1038/ijo.2009.14.
Shin AC1, Berthoud HR. Food reward acts as influenced by obesity and bariatric surgery. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Sep;35 Suppl 3:S40-4. Doi: 10.1038/ijo.2011.147.


David Hernandez